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Dr. Nanette Santoro
Professor and Chair, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Colorado, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Advanced Reproductive Medicine
Dr. Nanette Santoro
Dr. Nanette Santoro has been an active clinician and researcher in Reproductive Endocrinology since 1986. She has directed the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology at two medical schools: New Jersey Medical School and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, both of which provided full-service care for women with reproductive problems of all kinds. At New Jersey Medical School, Dr. Santoro directed one of the nation’s first oocyte donation programs. She is the author of over 120 scientific publications and two books.
Dr. Santoro’s major research interests include the reproductive endocrinology of premature, peri-, and postmenopausal infertility, and the physiology of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. She has been involved with numerous industry- and government-supported clinical trials, including the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), and the Reproductive Physiology of Ovarian Failure, and is a co-editor of the Textbook of Perimenopausal Gynecology and the upcoming textbook Amenorrhea: A Clinician’s Guide. She has also held a K24 grant, Establishment of Regular Ovulation in Normal Menarche, for the past nine years.
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Meet Dr. Santoro
Post Graduate Training
- Medical School – Albany Medical College
- Residency – Beth Israel Medical Center, New York
- Fellowship – Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Dr. Santoro’s laboratory has specialized in the development and measurement of urinary metabolites of reproductive hormones. In this way, field studies can be performed that allow for daily hormone assessments without the inconvenience of blood drawing. Urine sampling has been used to characterize the irregular hormone and bleeding patterns seen during puberty and across the transition into menopause. In collaboration with Dr. Lubna Pal, Dr. Santoro has recently assessed the daily urinary hormonal profiles of women in their 30s who have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), a fertility problem in which the egg supply in the ovary is prematurely low. Such women are at risk for early menopause, but prior to their menopause they go through a variable period of time when they have somewhat regular menstrual cycles, yet a lower chance of pregnancy compared to other women their age without this condition. Dr. Pal’s study has shown that the expected change associated with natural menopause – elevated follicle stimulating hormone or FSH – is elevated in women with DOR, but other, unexpected changes in hormones were observed that are not typically seen in the normal transition into menopause. In these younger women, there was evidence that both estrogen and progesterone, as measured in the urine, were significantly lower in the women with DOR. This is an important clinical finding because such women may be at high risk for occult bone loss and may not have their bone density checked for many years.
Turning to another problem, the Santoro lab has recently been awarded a Project in the Center for Reproductive Biology’s Specialized Centers Program for Research in Reproduction (U54) Program Grant from the NIH. This project will follow up on intriguing findings from past work examining how obesity affects the reproductive axis in women. Initial studies found evidence for suppression of hypothalamic or pituitary function in obesity that is not due to known feedback mechanisms. Current studies will tease out the site of the defect and help clarify the relationship between fertility and body mass. To demonstrate the impact of BMI on fertility, Dr. Santoro worked with Dr. Alex Polotsky on a secondary data analysis of SWAN, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. In this study, Dr. Polotsky asked whether or not obesity in adolescence could be linked to infertility later in life. Indeed, the data bore out the hypothesis in this study, in which 30.9 percent of women with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 were found to have never delivered a child. This striking effect of obesity cannot be accounted for by less exposure to sexual encounters, and was also independent of other reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, that also tend to be more common in obese women.
Publications and Presentations
Al-Safi Z, McAvery B, Santoro N. The Postmenopausal Woman. In: De Groot LJ, Beck-Peccoz P, Chrousos G, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Koch C, McLachlan R, New M, Rebar R, Singer F, Vinik A, Weickert MO, editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):
Trussell JC, Ohl DA, Krawetz SA, Snyder PJ, Polotsky AJ, Patrizio P, Christman GM; Reproductive Medicine Network. We need a prospective varicocelectomy trial. Fertil Steril. 2014 Jun;101(6):1563-4.e1. Epub 2014 Apr 14.PMID: 24726225 Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N. Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol
Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3489-510. PMID: 25279570 Merhi Z, Polotsky AJ, Bradford AP, Buyuk E, Chosich J, Phang T, Jindal S, Santoro N. Adiposity Alters Genes Important in Inflammation and Cell Cycle Division in Human Cumulus Granulosa Cell. Reprod Sci. 2015 Feb 11. PMID: 25676576
Harman SM, Black DM, Naftolin F, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Hopkins PN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Neal-Perry G, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Vittinghoff E, Yan M, Hodis HN. Arterial imaging outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in recently menopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Aug 19;161(4):249-60. PMID: 25069991
Wooding KM, Hankin JA, Johnson CA, Chosich JD, Baek SW, Bradford AP, Murphy RC, Santoro N. Measurement of estradiol, estrone, and testosterone in postmenopausal human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization. Steroids. 2015 Apr;96:89-94. PMID: 25617740
Pinkerton JV, Santoro N. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: identifying use trends and knowledge gaps among US women. Menopause. 2015 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25692877
Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisonleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Reproductive Medicine Network. Assessment of multiple intrauterine gestations from ovarian stimulation (AMIGOS) trial: baseline characteristics.Fertil Steril. 2015 Apr;103(4):962-973. PMID: 25707331
Roth LW, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Allshouse AA, Lesh J, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Evidence of GnRH antagonist escape in obese women.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;99(5):E871-5.PMID: 24650013
Polotsky AJ, Allshouse AA, Casson PR, Coutifaris C, Diamond MP, Christman GM, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Legro RS. Impact of Male and Female Weight, Smoking, and Intercourse Frequency on Live Birth in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun;100(6):2405-12. PMID: 25856211
Gleason CE, Dowling NM, Wharton W, Manson JE, Miller VM, Atwood CS, Brinton EA, Cedars MI, Lobo RA, Merriam GR, Neal-Perry G, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Black DM, Budoff MJ, Hodis HN, Naftolin F, Harman SM, Asthana S. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study. PLoS Med. 2015 Jun 2;12(6):e1001833. PMID: 26035291
Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Yan Q, Alvero R, Haisenleder DJ, Barnhart KT, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder P, Ohl D, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H; NICHD Reproductive Medicine Network Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 10;371(2):119-29. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 9;317(15):1465.PMID: 25006718
Allshouse AA, Polotsky A, Crawford S, Chen HY, El Khoudary SR, Santoro N. Consistent ovulation may not be enough to make women healthy when approaching menopause: an update from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2015 Mar;22(3):267-74. PMID: 25714237
Khan UI, Wang D, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA, Khalil N, Ylitalo KR, Santoro N. Progression from metabolically benign to at-risk obesity in perimenopausal women: a longitudinal analysis of study of women across the nation (SWAN). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul;99(7):2516-25. PMID: 24846534
Santoro N. What to do when the numbers don’t add up. Fertil Steril. 2015 May;103(5):1150. Epub 2015 Mar 14. PMID: 25782620
Allshouse AA, Semple AL, Santoro N. Evidence for prolonged and unique amenorrhea-related symptoms in women with premature ovarian failure/primary ovarian insufficiency.Menopause. 2015 Feb;22(2):166-74. PMID: 25003622
Khan UI1, Wang D, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA, Khalil N, Ylitalo KR, Santoro N. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Feb 11:jc20134170. [Epub ahead of print] Hyperandrogenic Oligomenorrhea and Metabolic Risks Across Menopausal Transition.
Polotsky AJ1, Allshouse AA, Crawford SL, Harlow SD, Khalil N, Kazlauskaite R, Santoro N, Legro RS. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Jun;22(6):1464-9. doi: 10.1002/oby.20713. Epub 2014 Feb 18. Profound reduction of ovarian estrogen by aromatase inhibition in obese women.
Ross LA1, Polotsky AJ, Kucherov A, Bradford AP, Lesh J, Chosich J, Gee N, Santoro N. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Feb 28. doi: 10.1111/cen.12441. [Epub ahead of print] Luteal phase dynamics of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in obese and normal weight women.
Roth LW1, Allshouse AA, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Lesh J, Chosich J, Kohrt W, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;99(5):E871-5. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-3598. Epub 2014 Mar 20. Evidence of GnRH antagonist escape in obese women.
Roth LW1, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Allshouse AA, Lesh J, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Fertil Steril. 2014 Apr;101(4):905-15. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.02.032. Epub 2014 Mar 6. Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms.
Al-Safi ZA1, Santoro N2. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 May;123 Suppl 1:95S. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000447433.22922.11. Elevated insulin in obese women relates to low endogenous luteinizing hormone.
Al-Safi ZA1, Roth L, Chosich J, Bradford A, Polotsky A, Santoro N. Fertil Steril. 2014 Jan;101(1):258-269.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.08.056. Epub 2013 Oct 21. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II study: baseline characteristics and effects of obesity from a multicenter randomized clinical trial.
Legro RS1, Brzyski RG2, Diamond MP3, Coutifaris C4, Schlaff WD5, Alvero R5, Casson P6, Christman GM7, Huang H8, Yan Q8, Haisenleder DJ9, Barnhart KT4, Bates GW10, Usadi R11, Lucidi R12, Baker V13, Trussell JC14, Krawetz SA3, Snyder P4, Ohl D7, Santoro N5, Eisenberg E15, Zhang H8; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Reproductive Medicine Network. 2013. Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype.
Kundu MC, May MC, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Lasley B, Gee N, Santoro N, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013 Apr;59(2):74-81. doi: 10.3109/19396368.2012.752547. Epub 2013 Jan 2. PMID: 23278149 [PubMed – in process] Genetic polymorphisms associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.
Miller VM, Petterson TM, Jeavons EN, Lnu AS, Rider DN, Heit JA, Cunningham JM, Huggins GS, Hodis HN, Budoff MJ, Santoro N, Hopkins PN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Naftolin F, Taylor HS, Harman SM, de Andrade M. Physiol Genomics. 2013 Jan 15;45(2):79-88. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00114.2012. Epub 2012 Nov 27. PMID: 23188791 [PubMed – in process] BRCA mutations and fertility: do not push the envelope!
Santoro N. Fertil Steril. 2013 May;99(6):1560. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.01.091. Epub 2013 Feb 4. No abstract available. PMID: 23380183 [PubMed – in process] Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study.
Wolff EF, He Y, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Hodis HN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Naftolin F, Pal L, Santoro N, Zhang H, Harman SM, Taylor HS. Fertil Steril. 2013 Apr;99(5):1385-91. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.11.053. Epub 2013 Jan 8. PMID: 23312232. SWAN: key findings to date and more to come.
Al-Safi ZA, Santoro N. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2013 May;9(3):217-9. doi: 10.2217/whe.13.15. No abstract available. PMID: 23638776. Associations of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with adipose tissue hormones in midlife women.
Wildman RP, Wang D, Fernandez I, Mancuso P, Santoro N, Scherer PE, Sowers MR. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar;21(3):629-36. doi: 10.1002/oby.20256. PMID: 23592672. Do changes in sex steroid hormones precede or follow increases in body weight during the menopause transition? Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation.
Wildman RP, Tepper PG, Crawford S, Finkelstein JS, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Thurston RC, Santoro N, Sternfeld B, Greendale GA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep;97(9):E1695-704. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-1614. Epub 2012 Jun 21. PMID: 22723312. Menopause. 2013 Aug;20(8):799. doi: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31829a63cd. Perception is 9/10 of the law.
Santoro N. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Aug;21(8):1726-33. doi: 10.1002/oby.20200. Epub 2013 May 13. Ectopic fat and adipokines in metabolically benign overweight/obese women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.
Ogorodnikova AD1, Khan UI, McGinn AP, Zeb I, Budoff MJ, Harman SM, Miller VM, Brinton EA, Manson JE, Hodis HN, Merriam GR, Cedars MI, Taylor HS, Naftolin F, Lobo RA, Santoro N, Wildman RP. Maturitas. 2013 Oct;76(2):185-8. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.07.010. Epub 2013 Aug 16. The correlation between self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI in reproductive age women.
Roth LW1, Allshouse AA, Lesh J, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2013 Oct;24(10):1451-5. doi: 10.1007/s13361-013-0705-y. Epub 2013 Aug 18. Mechanism of formation of the major estradiol product ions following collisional activation of the molecular anion in a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer.
Wooding KM1, Barkley RM, Hankin JA, Johnson CA, Bradford AP, Santoro N, Murphy RC. Contraception. 2013 Oct;88(4):568-76. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2013.07.003. Epub 2013 Jul 23. A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later. One Hundred Professors of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Archer DF, Autry A, Barbieri RL, Ladd KM, Berek JS, Lacob LK, Berga SL, Bernstein IM, Maeck JV, Brodman M, Brown H, Buekens P, Watkins WH, Bulun SE, Sciarra JJ, Burkman RT, Campbell WA, Carson LF, Caughey AB, Chaudhuri G, Chelmow D, Dunn LJ, Chervenak F, Clarke-Pearson DL, Ross RA, Creinin M, D’Alton M, Rappleye WC, Dandolu V, Darney PD, Derman R, Driscoll DA, Mastroianni L, Eschenbach DA, Ferguson JE, Fox HE, Edwards D, Friedman AJ, Gilliam M, Griffin T, Grimes DA, Grow DR, Giudice L, Haney A, Hansen WF, Harman C, Heffner LJ, Hendessi P, Hogge WA, McCall MC, Horowitz IR, Thompson JD, Jensen J, Speroff L, Johnson TR, Johnson D, Johnson J, Jonas HS, Jones HW 3rd, Keefe D, Kaplan SH, Kilpatrick SJ, Landon MB, Larsen JW, Laube DW, Learman LA, Ehrlich CE, Leslie KK, Niebyl JR, Linn E, Liu JH, Bill AH, Lowery C, Macones GA, Mallet V, Maulik D, Merkatz IR, Mishell DR Jr, Montgomery O, Rice VM, Moore T, Muderspach L, Nelson AL, Niebyl JR, Norwitz ER, Phaneuf LE, Parisi V, Jones KP, Phipps MG, Porto M, Pridjian G, Miller CJ, Quirk JG, Rader JS, A J, Klieger ED, Rayburn WF, Seligman R, Reindollar R, Ricciotti HA, Rice L, Richard-Davis G, Rivera-Vinas JI, Santoro N, Taylor ES, Satin AJ, Sauvage LM, Schlaff WD, Sciarraa J, Silverman RK, Smith CV, Speroff L, Stenchever M, Strauss JF 3rd, Stubblefield P, Taylor HS, Young AO, Van Dorsten JP, Washington E, Weiss G, Westhoff C, Williams RS, Prystowsky H, Woods J, Thiede HA, Yankowitz J, Ingram JM. 2012. Are vasomotor symptoms associated with sleep characteristics among symptomatic midlife women? Comparisons of self-report and objective measures.
Thurston RC, Santoro N, Matthews KA. Menopause. 2012 Jul;19(7):742-8. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3182422973. PMID: 22415568. Relative contributions of oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia to the risk of metabolic syndrome in midlife women.
Polotsky AJ, Allshouse A, Crawford SL, Harlow SD, Khalil N, Santoro N, Legro RS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;97(6):E868-77. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-3357. Epub 2012 Mar 30. PMID: 22466350
Legro RS Kunselman AR, Brzyski RG, Casson PR, Diamond MP, Schlaff WD, Christman GM, Coutifaris C, Taylor HS, Eisenberg E, Santoro N, Zhang H; NICHD Reproductive Medicine Network. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012 May;33(3):470-81. Epub 2012 Jan 13. Jindal S Impaired gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).
Jindal S, Greenseid K, Berger D, Santoro N, Pal L. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Feb;29(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10815-011-9684-8. Epub 2011 Dec 11. Running interference.
Santoro N. Fertil Steril. 2012 Jun;97(6):1294 The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II) trial: rationale and design of a double-blind randomized trial of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome Ectopic fat and adipokines in metabolically benign overweight/obese women: The kronos early estrogen prevention study.
Ogorodnikova AD, Khan UI, McGinn AP, Zeb I, Budoff MJ, Harman SM, Miller VM, Brinton EA, Manson JE, Hodis HN, Merriam GR, Cedars MI, Taylor HS, Naftolin F, Lobo RA, Santoro N, Wildman RP. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Nov 29. doi: 10.1002/oby.20200. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23670850 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Predictors of pregnancy and live birth after insemination in couples with unexplained or male-factor infertility.
Huang H, Hansen KR, Factor-Litvak P, Carson SA, Guzick DS, Santoro N, Diamond MP, Eisenberg E, Zhang H; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Fertil Steril. 2012 Apr;97(4):959-67. Epub 2012 Jan 23
Diamond MP Kruger M, Santoro N, Zhang H, Casson P, Schlaff W, Coutifaris C, Brzyski R, Christman G, Carr BR, McGovern PG, Cataldo NA, Steinkampf MP, Gosman GG, Nestler JE, Carson S, Myers EE, Eisenberg E, Legro RS; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Endometrial shedding effect on conception and live birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 May;119(5):902-8
Huang G Wang D, Khan UI, Zeb I, Manson JE, Miller V, Hodis HN, Budoff MJ, Merriam GR, Harman SM, Brinton EA, Cedars MI, Lobo RA, Naftolin F, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Wildman RP, Su Y. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: Cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS Study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012 May 15;11(1):52
Wildman RP Wang D, Fernandez I, Mancuso P, Santoro N, Scherer PE, Sowers MR. Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Apr 30
Traub ML, Santoro N. Reproductive aging and its consequences for general health. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Aug;1204:179-87.
Harman SM, Brinton EA, Naftolin F, Merriam GR, Cedars MI, Freeman RG, Santoro N. Menopausal hormone therapy and risk for cardiovascular disease in the WHI trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Jul 6;153(1):60-1.
Green R, Polotsky AJ, Wildman RP, McGinn AP, Lin J, Derby C, Johnston J, Ram KT, Crandall CJ, Thurston R, Gold E, Weiss G, Santoro N. Menopausal symptoms within a Hispanic cohort: SWAN, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Climacteric. 2010 Aug;13(4):376-84.
Nejat EJ, Santoro N. Exercise and quality of life: which comes first? Menopause. 2010 Jan-Feb;17:8-9.
Kuokkanen S, Chen B, Ojalvo L, Benard L, Santoro N, Pollard JW. Genomic profiling of microRNAs and messenger RNAs reveals hormonal regulation in microRNA expression in human endometrium. Biol Reprod. 2010 Apr;82(4):791-801.
Santoro N, Komi J. Prevalence and impact of vaginal symptoms among postmenopausal women. J Sex Med. 2009 Aug;6(8):2133-42.
Traub ML, Van Arsdale A, Pal L, Jindal S, Santoro N. Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 Apr 22;7:33.
Santoro N, Dicken CL. Hot flashes: a rose is a rose is a rose. Menopause. 2009 May-Jun;16(3):432-3.
Green R, Santoro N. Menopausal symptoms and ethnicity: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2009 Mar;5(2):127-33.
Pal L, Zhang K, Zeitlian G, Santoro N. Characterizing the reproductive hormone milieu in infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve. Fertil Steril. 2010 Mar 1;93(4):1074-9.